LinearUVLM

class sharpy.linear.assembler.linearuvlm.LinearUVLM[source]

Linear UVLM System Assembler

Produces state-space model of the form

\[\begin{split}\mathbf{x}_{n+1} &= \mathbf{A}\,\mathbf{x}_n + \mathbf{B} \mathbf{u}_{n+1} \\ \mathbf{y}_n &= \mathbf{C}\,\mathbf{x}_n + \mathbf{D} \mathbf{u}_n\end{split}\]

where the state, inputs and outputs are:

\[\mathbf{x}_n = \{ \delta \mathbf{\Gamma}_n,\, \delta \mathbf{\Gamma_{w_n}},\, \Delta t\,\delta\mathbf{\Gamma}'_n,\, \delta\mathbf{\Gamma}_{n-1} \}\]
\[\mathbf{u}_n = \{ \delta\mathbf{\zeta}_n,\, \delta\mathbf{\zeta}'_n,\, \delta\mathbf{u}_{ext,n} \}\]
\[\mathbf{y} = \{\delta\mathbf{f}\}\]

with \(\mathbf{\Gamma}\in\mathbb{R}^{MN}\) being the vector of vortex circulations, \(\mathbf{\zeta}\in\mathbb{R}^{3(M+1)(N+1)}\) the vector of vortex lattice coordinates and \(\mathbf{f}\in\mathbb{R}^{3(M+1)(N+1)}\) the vector of aerodynamic forces and moments. Note that \((\bullet)'\) denotes a derivative with respect to time.

Note that the input is atypically defined at time n+1. If the setting remove_predictor = True the predictor term u_{n+1} is eliminated through the change of state[1]:

\[\begin{split}\mathbf{h}_n &= \mathbf{x}_n - \mathbf{B}\,\mathbf{u}_n \\\end{split}\]

such that:

\[\begin{split}\mathbf{h}_{n+1} &= \mathbf{A}\,\mathbf{h}_n + \mathbf{A\,B}\,\mathbf{u}_n \\ \mathbf{y}_n &= \mathbf{C\,h}_n + (\mathbf{C\,B}+\mathbf{D})\,\mathbf{u}_n\end{split}\]

which only modifies the equivalent \(\mathbf{B}\) and \(\mathbf{D}\) matrices.

The integr_order setting refers to the finite differencing scheme used to calculate the bound circulation derivative with respect to time \(\dot{\mathbf{\Gamma}}\). A first order scheme is used when integr_order == 1

\[\dot{\mathbf{\Gamma}}^{n+1} = \frac{\mathbf{\Gamma}^{n+1}-\mathbf{\Gamma}^n}{\Delta t}\]

If integr_order == 2 a higher order scheme is used (but it isn’t exactly second order accurate [1]).

\[\dot{\mathbf{\Gamma}}^{n+1} = \frac{3\mathbf{\Gamma}^{n+1}-4\mathbf{\Gamma}^n + \mathbf{\Gamma}^{n-1}} {2\Delta t}\]

Note

Control surface deflections are implemented using LinControlSurfaceDeflector and the sign convention differs from the nonlinear solver. In the linear solver, the control surface deflects according to the local \(x_B\) vector. See the control surface deflection class for more details.

References

[1] Franklin, GF and Powell, JD. Digital Control of Dynamic Systems, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1980

[2] Maraniello, S., & Palacios, R.. State-Space Realizations and Internal Balancing in Potential-Flow Aerodynamics with Arbitrary Kinematics. AIAA Journal, 57(6), 1–14. 2019. https://doi.org/10.2514/1.J058153

The settings that this solver accepts are given by a dictionary, with the following key-value pairs:

Name

Type

Description

Default

Options

dt

float

Time step

0.1

integr_order

int

Integration order of the circulation derivative.

2

1, 2

ScalingDict

dict

Dictionary of scaling factors to achieve normalised UVLM realisation.

{}

remove_predictor

bool

Remove the predictor term from the UVLM equations

True

use_sparse

bool

Assemble UVLM plant matrix in sparse format

True

density

float

Air density

1.225

remove_inputs

list(str)

List of inputs to remove. u_gust to remove external velocity input.

[]

u_gust

gust_assembler

str

Selected linear gust assembler.

LeadingEdge, MultiLeadingEdge

gust_assembler_inputs

dict

Selected linear gust assembler parameter inputs.

{}

rom_method

list(str)

List of model reduction methods to reduce UVLM.

[]

rom_method_settings

dict

Dictionary with settings for the desired ROM methods, where the name of the ROM method is the key to the dictionary

{}

vortex_radius

float

Distance below which inductions are not computed

sharpy.utils.constants.vortex_radius_def

cfl1

bool

If it is True, it assumes that the discretisation complies with CFL=1

True

convert_to_ct

bool

Convert system to Continuous Time. Note: features above the original Nyquist frequency limit will not be captured.

False

The settings that this solver accepts are given by a dictionary, with the following key-value pairs:

Name

Type

Description

Default

Options

length

float

Reference length to be used for UVLM scaling

1.0

speed

float

Reference speed to be used for UVLM scaling

1.0

density

float

Reference density to be used for UVLM scaling

1.0

assemble(track_body=False, wake_prop_settings=None)[source]

Assembles the linearised UVLM system, removes the desired inputs and adds linearised control surfaces (if present).

With all possible inputs present, these are ordered as

\[\mathbf{u} = [\boldsymbol{\zeta},\,\dot{\boldsymbol{\zeta}},\,\mathbf{w},\,\delta]\]

Control surface inputs are ordered last as:

\[[\delta_1, \delta_2, \dots, \dot{\delta}_1, \dot{\delta_2}]\]
connect_input(element)[source]

Connect a gain or a StateSpace to the input of the UVLM

Parameters

element (libss.StateSpace or libss.Gain) – element to connect to the input of the UVLM

connect_output(element)[source]

Connect a gain or a StateSpace to the output of the UVLM

Parameters

element (libss.StateSpace or libss.Gain) – element to connect to the output of the UVLM

remove_inputs(remove_list=<class 'list'>)[source]

Remove certain inputs from the input vector

To do:
  • Support for block UVLM

Parameters

remove_list (list) – Inputs to remove

unpack_input_vector(u_n, u_ext_gust, input_variables)[source]

Unpacks the input vector into the corresponding grid coordinates, velocities and external velocities.

Parameters
  • u_n (np.ndarray) – UVLM input vector. May contain control surface deflections and external velocities.

  • u_ext_gust (np.ndarray) – Inputs to the Gust system only. Optional, an empty array may be parsed.

  • input_variables (LinearVector) – Vector of input variables to the aerodynamic system

Returns

Tuple containing zeta, zeta_dot and u_ext, accounting for the effect of control surfaces.

Return type

tuple

unpack_ss_vector(data, x_n, u_aero, aero_tstep, track_body=False, state_variables=None, gust_in=False)[source]

Transform column vectors used in the state space formulation into SHARPy format

The column vectors are transformed into lists with one entry per aerodynamic surface. Each entry contains a matrix with the quantities at each grid vertex.

\[\mathbf{y}_n \longrightarrow \mathbf{f}_{aero}\]
\[\mathbf{x}_n \longrightarrow \mathbf{\Gamma}_n,\, \mathbf{\Gamma_w}_n,\, \mathbf{\dot{\Gamma}}_n\]

If the track_body option is on, the output forces are projected from the linearization frame, to the G frame. Note that the linearisation frame is:

  1. equal to the FoR G at time 0 (linearisation point)

  2. rotates as the body frame specified in the track_body_number

Parameters
  • y_n (np.ndarray) – Column output vector of linear UVLM system

  • x_n (np.ndarray) – Column state vector of linear UVLM system

  • u_n (np.ndarray) – Column input vector of linear UVLM system

  • aero_tstep (AeroTimeStepInfo) – aerodynamic timestep information class instance

Returns

Tuple containing:

forces (list):

Aerodynamic forces in a list with n_surf entries. Each entry is a (6, M+1, N+1) matrix, where the first 3 indices correspond to the components in x, y and z. The latter 3 are zero.

gamma (list):

Bound circulation list with n_surf entries. Circulation is stored in an (M+1, N+1) matrix, corresponding to the panel vertices.

gamma_dot (list):

Bound circulation derivative list with n_surf entries. Circulation derivative is stored in an (M+1, N+1) matrix, corresponding to the panel vertices.

gamma_star (list):

Wake (free) circulation list with n_surf entries. Wake circulation is stored in an (M_star+1, N+1) matrix, corresponding to the panel vertices of the wake.

Return type

tuple